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Introduction to Smell

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1. ÍصÊÒË¡ÃÃÁ·Õè·ÓãËéà¡Ô´¡ÅÔè¹

1.1 ÍصÊÒË¡ÃÃÁ¼ÅÔµÂÒ§áÅоÅÒʵԡ

      ¡ÅÔè¹ÊÒÃà¤ÁÕ·ÕèÁÒ¨Ò¡ÍصÊÒË¡ÃÃÁ¡ÒüÅÔµÍÒ¨¨Ðáºè§ÍÍ¡ä´éà»ç¹ 5 ª¹Ô´ ä´éá¡è

  1. ÊÒûÃСͺä¹âµÃ (Nitro compounds) ä´éá¡è àÍÁÕ¹ (Amines) áÅÐ ÍÍ¡ä«´ì (Oxides)
  2. «ÑÅà¿ÍÃìÍÍ¡ä«´ì (Sulfur Oxides)
  3. ÊÒ÷ÕèàµÔÁãÊè¾ÅÒʵԡà¾×èÍà¾ÔèÁ¤ÇÒÁà˹ÕÂÇáÅÐÂ×´ËÂØè¹ (Plasticizers)
  4. µÑÇ·ÓÅÐÅÒ (Solvents)
  5. äÎâ´Ã¤ÒÃìºÍ¹·ÕèÍÍ¡«Ôä´«ìºÒ§Êèǹ (Partially Oxidized Hydrocarbons) àªè¹ ÍÑÅ´Õäδì (Aldehydes) ¤Õâµ¹ (Ketones) ¿Õ¹ÍÅ (Phenol) áÍÅ¡ÍÎÍÅì (Alcohols) à»ç¹µé¹

      ã¹ÍصÊÒË¡ÃÃÁ¼ÅÔµÂÒ§áÅоÅÒʵԡ¨ÐÁÕ¡ÒÃãªéµÑÇ·ÓÅÐÅÒÂÁÒ¡ÁÒ «Öè§ÊÒõÑÇ·ÓÅÐÅÒÂàËÅèÒ¹Õé¨ÐãËé¡ÅÔè¹à©¾ÒеÑÇ ã¹µèÒ§»ÃÐà·Èä´éÁÕ¡ÒÃáÊ´§¢éÍÁÙŤÇÒÁà¢éÁ¢é¹·Õ褹¨ÐÃѺÃÙé¡ÅÔ蹢ͧÊÒÃáµèÅЪ¹Ô´·Õèãªéã¹ÍصÊÒË¡ÃÃÁÂÒ§ ´Ñ§áÊ´§ã¹ µÒÃÒ§·Õè 2

µÒÃÒ§·Õè 2 áÊ´§ÅѡɳÐ੾ÒТͧ¡ÅÔè¹µÑÇ·ÓÅÐÅÒ (Solvents) ·Õèãªéã¹ÍصÊÒË¡ÃÃÁÂÒ§ (Rubber Industry)

ª¹Ô´¢Í§ÊÒÃ

ÅѡɳÐ੾ÒТͧ¡ÅÔè¹

¤èÒ Threshold ¢Í§¡ÅÔè¹

(ppm)

Acetone

Chemical sweet, pungent

100, 320

Amyl acetate

Pear-like

Benzene

Sweet-solvent

3, 5, 60

Butyl acetate

Fruity

7, 0.6

Butyl alcohol

Vinous

1

Butyl ether

Ethereal

< 300

Capruyl alcohol

Pungent aromatic, sweet pungent

Carbon tetrachloride

Heavy ethereal

100, 200

Chloroform

Sweet, ethereal

< 300

Chlorotoulene

Pungent, irritating

0.047

Cyclohexane

Bland, fatty, benzene, pungent

< 300

Cyclohexanol

Camphor-like

160

Cyclohexanone

Acetone-like

730

Diacetone alcohol

Faint, pleasant

< 100

Dichloroethyl ether

Chloroform-like

15

Di-iso-butyl Ketone

Mild

< 25

Dipentene

Lemon-like

Ethyl acetate

Fragrant

50

Ethyl alcohol

Sweet floral

10, 50

Ethyl amyl Ketone

Mild fruity

5

Ethylene dichloride

Chloroform-like

100

Heptane

Faint

220

Hexanes

Faint, sweet

Hexyleneglycol

Mild

Isobutyl alcohol

Sweet

40

Isoheptanes

Faint

Isohexanes

Faint, sweet

Isooctanes

Faint, pleasant, sweet

Isopentanes

Pleasant

Isoporone

Mild

 

Isopropyl acetate

Pear-like

30

Isopropyl alcohol

Pleasant

40

Methyl acetate

Fragrant

200

Methyl alcohol

Sweet, fruity

100, 5,900

Methyl amyl acetate

Pleasant

Methyl chloride

Ethereal

> 10

Methyl ethyl ketone

Sweet, acetone-like

10, 25

Methyl isoamy ketone

Pleasant

Methyl isobutyl ketone

Sweet, floral, fruity

0.47, 8

Methyl isobutyl carbinol

Faint, ethereal

Methylene chloride

Ethereal

214, 150

Monochlorobenzene

Chlorinated, benzene-like, moth balls, mild

0.21

Naphtha

Camphor-like

Nitro-ethane

Pleasant

Orthodichlorobenzene

Pleasant

Pentanes

Pleasant

< 5000

Perchloroethylene

Sweet, chlorinated, chloroform-like

4.7

Propylene dichloride

Chloroform-like

Pyridine

Burnt, pungent, rank, diamine

0.82, 0.021, 0.012, 0.23

Toluene

Sweet, solventy

0.25

Trichlorobenzene

Trichloroethane

Pleasant, sweetish

< 500

Trichloroethylene

Sweet, solventy, chloroform-like

21.4, 80, 25

Triglycol dichloride

Mild

Xylene

Sweet, oily, moth balls

1

·ÕèÁÒ : Cheremisinoff, P.N. and R.A. Young (1975) Industrial Odor Technology Assessment. Ann Arbor Science, Michigan .

 

1.2 ÍصÊÒË¡ÃÃÁà¤ÁÕáÅлÔâµÃà¤ÁÕ

           ÍصÊÒË¡ÃÃÁ·Õè¼ÅÔµà¤ÁÕÀѳ±ìáÅÐÍصÊÒË¡ÃÃÁ»ÔâµÃà¤ÁÕ ¹Ñºà»ç¹áËÅ觡Óà¹Ô´¢Í§ÊÒ÷Õè·ÓãËéà¡Ô´¡ÅÔè¹ËÅÒª¹Ô´ â´Â੾ÒÐÍÂèÒ§ÂÔè§ã¹ÍصÊÒË¡ÃÃÁà¤ÁÕ¹Ñé¹ ÊÒ÷Õè¡èÍãËéà¡Ô´¡ÅÔ蹨ÐÁÒ¨Ò¡ÊÒÃ͹Թ·ÃÕÂì áÅÐÊÒÃÍÔ¹·ÃÕÂì â´Â¢Ö鹡Ѻ»ÃÐàÀ·¢Í§âç§Ò¹ âç§Ò¹·Õè¨ÐãËéÊÒ÷Õè¡èÍãËéà¡Ô´¡ÅÔè¹ ä´éá¡è âç§Ò¹¼ÅԵʺÙèáÅм§«Ñ¡¿Í¡ âç§Ò¹¼ÅÔµ¹éÓÁѹáÅÐä¢ÁѹµèÒ§æ à»ç¹µé¹ ÊÓËÃѺÍصÊÒË¡ÃÃÁ·Ò§´éÒ¹»ÔâµÃà¤ÁÕ¹Ñé¹ ºÃÔàdz¶Ñ§·Õèà¡çºÊÒÃà¤ÁÕáÅСÃкǹ¡ÒüÅÔµà»ç¹¨Ø´·ÕèÃкÒÂÊÒ÷Õè·ÓãËéà¡Ô´¡ÅÔè¹ »ÃÐàÀ·¢Í§ÍصÊÒË¡ÃÃÁáÅСÃкǹ¡Ò÷Õè·ÓãËéà¡Ô´¡ÅÔ蹢ͧÍصÊÒË¡ÃÃÁáµèÅлÃÐàÀ· áÊ´§äÇéã¹ µÒÃÒ§·Õè 3 Êèǹ µÒÃÒ§·Õè 4 à»ç¹µÒÃÒ§áÊ´§ª¹Ô´¢Í§ÊÒ÷Õè·ÓãËéà¡Ô´¡ÅÔè¹áÅÐÅѡɳÐ੾ÒТͧ¡ÅÔè¹·Õ辺ã¹ÍصÊÒË¡ÃÃÁà¤ÁÕáÅлÔâµÃà¤ÁÕ

µÒÃÒ§·Õè 3 áÊ´§áËÅ觡Óà¹Ô´¢Í§¡ÅÔè¹ã¹¢ºÇ¹¡ÒüÅÔµã¹ÍصÊÒË¡ÃÃÁà¤ÁÕáÅлÔâµÃà¤ÁÕ  

»ÃÐàÀ·ÍصÊÒË¡ÃÃÁ

áËÅ觡Óà¹Ô´

ª¹Ô´¢Í§ÊÒ÷Õè·ÓãËéà¡Ô´¡ÅÔè¹

Refineries

Blowdown and blowdown
Recovery systems

SO2, H2S, NH3, HC,
Organic Acids, Aldehydes, Mercaptans

Catalytic crackers

SO2, NH3, Aldehydes

Fluid catalytic units

SO2, NH3, Aldehydes, HC

Process heaters

SO2, NH3, H2S, Aldehydes, HC

Storage vessels

Hydrocarbons

Inorganic Chemical

Industry

Fertilizers, phosphate
production

NH3, Aldehydes, SO2

Phosphoric acid

SO2, H2S, Aldehydes
and OtherOdorants

Soda ash and sodium hydroxide

NH3

Sulfuric acid, nitric acid, lime

NH3, Aldehydes, SO2

Organic Chemical
Industry

Organic chemicals

Mercaptans, NH3, HC, SO2,
Aldehydes,
Organic Acids, and OtherOdorants

Paint industry

NH33, HC, SO2 , Aldehydes,
Organic Acids, and OtherOdorants

Plastics

NH3, NC, SO2 , Aldehydes,
Organic Acids

Rubber

NH3 , HC, SO2, Aldehydes,
Organic Acids, and OtherOdorants

Soap, detergents

NH3, HC, SO2 ,Aldehydes,
Organic Acids, and OtherOdorants

Textiles

NH3 ,HC, SO2 , Aldehydes,
Organic Acids, and OtherOdorants


µÒÃÒ§·Õè 4 áÊ´§ª¹Ô´¢Í§ÊÒ÷Õè·ÓãËéà¡Ô´¡ÅÔè¹áÅÐÅѡɳÐ੾ÒТͧ¡ÅÔè¹ã¹ÍصÊÒË¡ÃÃÁà¤ÁÕáÅлÔâµÃà¤ÁÕ  

ª¹Ô´¢Í§ÊÒÃ

ÊÙµÃà¤ÁÕ

ÅѡɳÐ੾ÒТͧ¡ÅÔè¹

Acetaldehyde

CH3 CHO

Pungent

Acrolein

CH2 CHCHO

Burning fat

Allyl disulfide

(CH2 CHCH2S)2

Garlic

Allyl mercaptan

CH2CHCH2SH

Garlic

Ammonia

NH3

Pungent

Benzyl chloride

C6 H5CH2CI

Aromatic

Benzyl mercaptan

C6H5CH2SH

Unpleasant

Butyric acid

CH3CH2CH2COOH

Rancid

Camphor

Aromatic

Carbon disulfide

CS2

Rotten

Chlorine

Cl2

Pungent

Diethylsulfide

C2H 5C 2H5S

Garlic

Dimethylamine

CH3CH3NH

Fishy

Dimethylsulfide

CH3CH3S

Decayed cabbage

Ethyl mercaptan

C2H5SH

Decayed cabbage

Ethylseleno mercaptan

C2H5SeH

Foul

Formaldehyde

HCHO

Pungent

Hydrogen sulfide

H2 S

Rotten eggs

Methyl mercaptan

CH3SH

Decayed cabbage

Phenol

C6 H5 OH

Emphyreumatic

Propyl mercaptan

C3H7 SH

Unpleasant

Pyridine

Enphyreumatic

Sulfur dioxide

SO2

Pungent

Trichloroethylene

CHCICCI2

Aromatic

Trimethylamine

CH3CH3CH3 N

Fishy

Valeric acid

CH3CH2CH2CH2COOH

Body odor

·ÕèÁÒ : Cheremisinoff, P.N. and R.A. Young (1975) Industrial Odor Technology Assessment. Ann Arbor Science, Michigan .

ÊÒÃà¤ÁÕ·ÕèÁÕ¡ÅÔè¹áÅФسÊÁºÑµÔ

  1. ¡ÅÔè¹»ÅÒÂèÒ§
  2. ÊäµÃÕ¹ (STYRENE)
  3. ACRYLONITRILE
  4. PHTHALIC ANHYDRIDE
  5. µÑÇ·ÓÅÐÅÒ ADIPATE
  6. µÑÇ·ÓÅÐÅÒ 1,1,2- TRICHLOROETHANE
  7. VINYL CHLORIDE
  8. METHYL TERTIARY-BUTYL ETHER
  9. ¡êÒ««ÑÅà¿ÍÃìä´ÍÍ¡ä«´ì (SULFUR DIOXIDE)
  10. äÎâ´Ã¤ÒÃìºÍ¹ àªè¹¡ÅÔè¹¹éÓÁѹ (FUEL OILS)
  11. ACETALDEHYDE
  12. µÑÇ·ÓÅÐÅÒ 1,1- DICHLOROETHYLENE
  13. ETHYLBENZENE
  14. µÑÇ·ÓÅÐÅÒ BENZENE
  15. µÑÇ·ÓÅÐÅÒ XYLENES
  16. µÑÇ·ÓÅÐÅÒ 1,3 BUTADIENE
  17. µÑÇ·ÓÅÐÅÒ 1,1,1- TRICHLOROEHANE
  18. µÑÇ·ÓÅÐÅÒ DICHLOROETHANE
  19. µÑÇ·ÓÅÐÅÒ TOLUENE
  20. µÑÇ·ÓÅÐÅÒ METHYL ETHYL KETONE (MEK) áÅÐ METHYL ISOBUTYL KETONE
  21. µÑÇ·ÓÅÐÅÒ CARBON TETRACHLORIDE
  22. CRESOLS
  23. CHLORDANE
  24. PARA-DICHLOROBENZENE
  25. ORTHO-DICHLOROBENZENE
  26. HEXACHLOROCYCLOPENTADIENE
  27. METHOXYCHLOR
  28. CARBOFURAN
  29. SILVEX (2,4,5- TP)
  30. TETRACHLOROETHYLENE
  31. àÁÍÃì᤻᷹ METHYL MERCAPTAN
  32. ¡êÒ«ä¢èà¹èÒ HYDROGEN SULPHIDE
  33. áÍÁâÁà¹Õ AMMONIA
  34. AMINES: TRIETHYLAMINE / TRIMETHYLAMINE
  35. ¤ÅÍÃÕ¹ CHLORINE
  36. ¡Ã´à¡Å×Í HYDROGEN CHLORIDE
  37. PHENOL
  38. ¡Ã´ä¢Áѹ
  39. ¡ÅÔ蹩ع¢Í§¾ÃÔ¡
  40. ÇÒ¹ÔÅÒ
  41. ¡Ã´¹éÓÊéÁ
  42. ÊÒÃà¤ÁÕ
  43. ¡ÅÔè¹ÂÒ§äËÁé
  44. ¡ÅÔ蹡ÓÁжѹ
  45. METHYL METHACRYLATE


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2. ÊÒÃà¤ÁÕ·Õè·ÓãËéà¡Ô´¡ÅÔ蹨ҡÃкººÓºÑ´¹éÓàÊÕ  

          ¡ÅÔè¹·Õèà¡Ô´¢Ö鹨ҡÃкº¹éÓàÊÕÂà¡Ô´¨Ò¡ÊÒÃà¤ÁÕËÅÒª¹Ô´ «Öè§áµèáÅЪ¹Ô´¨ÐãËé¡ÅÔè¹·Õè¾Ö§Ãѧà¡Õ¨ᵡµèÒ§¡Ñ¹ä» ´Ñ§áÊ´§ã¹ µÒÃÒ§·Õè 5

µÒÃÒ§·Õè 5 áÊ´§ª¹Ô´¤èÒ Threshold áÅÐÅѡɳТͧ¡ÅÔè¹·Õèà¡Ô´¨Ò¡Ãкº¹éÓàÊÕÂ

ª¹Ô´¢Í§ÊÒÃ

ÊÙµÃà¤ÁÕ

¤èÒ Threshold ¢Í§¡ÅÔè¹

(mg/l)

ÅѡɳÐ੾ÒТͧ¡ÅÔè¹

Allyl mercaptan

CH2CH•CH2•SH

0.00005

Very diasgreeable, garliclike

Ammonia

NH3

0.037

Sharp, pungent odor

Benzyl mercaptan

C6H5CH2 •SH

0.00019

Unpleasant odor

Chlorine

Cl2

0.010

Pungent, irritating odor

Chlorophenol

Cl• C6H4• OH

0.00018

Medicinal odor

Crotyl mercaptan

CH3• CHCH •CH2SH

0.000029

Skunk odor

Diphenyl sulfide

(C6H5)2S

0.000048

Unpleasant odor

Ethyl mercaptan

CH3CH2• SH

0.00019

Odor of decayed cabbage

Ethyl sulfide

(C2H5)2S

0.000025

Nauseating odor

Hydrogen sulfide

H2S

0.0011

Rotten egg odor

Methyl mercaptan

CH3 SH

0.0011

Odor of decayed cabbage

Methyl sulfide

(CH3)2S

0.0011

Odor of decayed vegetables

Pyridine

C6H5N

0.0037

Disagreeable, irritating odor

Skatole

C9H 9N

0.0012

Fecal odor, nauseating

Sulfur dioxide

SO2

0.009

Pungent, irritating odor

Thiocresol

CH3C 6H 4• SH

0.0001

Rancid, skunklike odor

Thiophenol

C6H 5SH

0.000062

Putrid, nauseating odor

·ÕèÁÒ : Cheremisinoff, P.N. and R.A. Young (1975) Industrial Odor Technology Assessment. Ann Arbor Science, Michigan.

 

 

 

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